Document Type: Original Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Chemistry, Payam Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Ilam University of Medical Science, Ilam Iran

3 Department of Epidemiology, Ilam University of Medical Science, Ilam, Iran

4 Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz,Iran

Abstract

ABSTRACT
A novel floatation-spectrophotometric extraction method was developed for the recovery of tin (II) from aqueous samples prior to determination by UV spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the formation of a complex between tin (II) and kalmagyte in pH=8. The complex is floated in the interface of n-hexane and aqueous phases. After removing the aqueous phase, the floated particles are dissolved in methanol and the absorbance is measured at 637 nm. Different parameters of the floatation-spectrophotometric technique such as reagent concentration, pH, surfactant, standing time and interfering ions were studied and optimized to obtain the best extraction results with the minimum interference from other compounds. Under these conditions, the extraction of the target compound was almost complete (mean values of recovery was more than 92.6%) in a short time (6 min). The optimized method demonstrated good linearity (r2 > 0.9991) in the range of 4-350 ng/mL, sensitivity (limit of detection for tin (II), 1.7 ng/mL), accuracy (0.19–7.35%) and precision (3.66%, 4.21%). The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated by extraction of tin(II) from different water samples.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1] A. Niazi, S. Sharifi, E. Amjadi, J. Electro. Chem, 2008, 623, 86–92.

[2] Y.H.Li, H.Long, F.Q.Zhou, Analytica Chimica Acta, 2005, 554, 86–91.

[3] T.J. Hosick, R.L. Ingamells, S.D. Machemer, Analytica Chimica Acta, 2002, 456, 263–269.

[4] G. Weber, Z. Fresenius, Anal. Chem, 1985, 321, 217-225.

[5] C.C. Gaver, T.T. alloys, K.Othmer, Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Wiley, New York, 1997, 24, 4th, 105–122.

[6] M. Ghaedi, Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 2007, 66, 295–301.

[7] Q. Hu, G. Yang, J. Ma, J.L. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc, 2003, 24, 1433-1448.

[8] Z. Yu, J. Sun, M. Jing, X. Cao, F. Lee, X. Wang, Food Chemistry, 2010, 119, 364–367.

[9] J. Moreda-Pi˜neiro, P. Lopez-Mahia, S. Muniategui-Lorenzo, E. Fernandez, D. Prada-Rodriguez, Anal. Chime. Acta, 2002, 461, 261–271.

[10] I. López-Garc´ıa, I. Arnau-Jerez, N. Campillo, M.H. Córdoba, Talanta, 2004, 62, 413–419.

[11] I. Lopez-Garcia, I. Arnau-Jerez, N. Campillo, M. Hernandez-Cordoba, Talanta, 2004, 62, 413–419.

[12] A. Zacharia, S. Gucer, B. Izgi, A. Chebotarev, H. Karaaslanm, Talanta, 2007, 72, 825-830.

[13] D.J. Wang, Z.H. Xie, Q.L. Wu, Y.J. Song, S.Y. Jin, Analyst, 1991, 116, 1189–1193.

[14] L.F. Capitanvallvey, M.C. Valencia, G. Miron, Anal. Chime. Acta, 1994, 289, 365–370.

15]  V. Pérez-Herranz, M. Garc´ıa-Gabaldón, J.L. Guiñón, J. Garc´ıa-Antón, Analytica Chimica Acta, 2003, 484, 243–251.

[16] H. Khalifa, N.T. Abdelghani, Y.M. Issa, H. Ibrahim, Microchem. “J’’., 1988, 38, 206–210.

[17] S.N. Muddukrishna, A. Chen, T.R. Sykes, A.A. Noujaim, Appl. Radiat. Isot, 1994, 45, 293–299.

[18] P. Chen, Y. Deng, K. Guo, X. Jiang, C. Zheng, X. Hou, Microchemical Journal,  2012, 112, 7-12.

[19] E.A. Hutton, S.B. Hoˇcevar, L.Mauko, B.Ogorevc, Analytica Chimica Acta, 2006, 580, 244–250.

[20] G. Somer, A. Arslantas,  Analyst, 1994, 119, 1257–1259.

[21] R. Lejeune, J. Thunus, L. Thunus, Anal. Chim. Acta, 1996, 332, 67–71.

[22] V. Fano, L. Zanotti, Microchem. J, 1973, 18, 345–349.

[23] P. Kiekens, H. Verplaetse, L. Decock, E. Temmerman, Analyst, 1981, 106, 305–310.

[24] S. Dogan, G. Nembrini, W. Haerdi, Anal. Chime. Acta, 1981,130, 385–390.

[25] L.F. Dias, T.D.S. Pierre, S.M. Maia, M.A. Mesquita da Silva, V.L. Frescura, B. Welz, A.J. Curtius, Acta Part B, 2003, 57, 2003-2015.

[26] O.O. Ajayi, M.O.A. Oladipo, H.O. Ogunsuyi, A.O. Adebayo, Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiopia, 2002, 16, 207-213.

[27] X. Li, J. Li, H. Kuang, L. Feng, S. Yi, X. Xia, Y. Chen, C. Tang, Y. Zeng, Analytica Chimica Acta, 2013, 802, 82-88.